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Meta-analyses of nearly 300 empirical studies
Putting astrology and astrologers to the test

Geoffrey Dean

Abstract -- Brings together in graphical form meta-analyses of sun sign self-attribution, matching tests, picking own chart, astrologer agreement, Gauquelin's tests of signs, aspects and planets, and lunar and other effects. Altogether there are a total of nine meta-analyses relevant to astrology, including for convenience the ones mentioned elsewhere on this website. Readers wishing to skip details can simply look at the pictures. Differences in statistical variables such as sample size and measurement reliability are like magic. They produce apparent effects and apparent effect sizes out of nothing, all of them spurious. Meta-analysis allows a set of effect sizes to be corrected for these spurious effects (something not possible with an individual study) to see if there is a real effect. Since the 1970s its ability to deal with spurious effects has revolutionised research wherever effect sizes are reported, and today many thousands of meta-analyses have been made. When applied to nearly 300 empirical astrological studies, many of them by astrologers, meta-analysis reveals zero support for effect sizes of around r = 0.7 that are representative of astrological claims. Mean effect size and number of studies are: sun sign self-attribution 0.070 (26) and controls -0.020 (9), matching birth charts to owners 0.034 (54), picking own chart 0.020 (11), agreement between astrologers 0.098 (26), Gauquelin's tests of signs and aspects 0.007 (62) and planets 0.044 (35), lunar effects 0.012 (50), and radio propagation effects 0.010 (10). If you are looking for something where nothing is true and everything is permitted, then astrology seems to be an excellent choice.

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